Tips to use GS-441524

A Laptop Near the Dollars and Papers on a Wooden Table

What is the correct dosage of GS-441524?

The dose depends on the weight of the cat. However, the basic dosage is 6-8 mg GS per 1 kg live weight of a cat in wet or dry uncomplicated FIP. Ours is also available calculator:

Neurological and ocular forms require dosages of up to about 10-12 mg / kg. Be sure to consult a specific dosage.

If you like formulas, then calculating is simple.

i = m * d / c

i: injection dose [ml]

m: cat’s weight [kg]

d: dosage of active substance (GS441524) for a given type of FIP [mg / kg]

c: concentration [mg/ml]


Cat’s weight is 2kg,

dose for your FIP type is 5mg/kg. 6mg / kg,

concentration of injection solution is 15mg / ml.

Enter into formula and you will get:

i = 2 * 6/15 = 0.8 ml

Urinary Stones in FIP Cats Treated with GS-441524: limited solubility of GS-441524

GS 441524 Urinary Stones in FIP Cats

As a devoted veterinary specialist with a deep passion for feline health, I find it crucial to address a recent and mysterious development in the world of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) treatment. The unexpected emergence of urinary stones in young cats receiving GS-441524 treatment has ignited a need for understanding and vigilance among cat owners. 

Urinary stones have long been a concern for cat owners, typically containing high levels of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium. However, what sets these recent cases apart is the striking composition of these stones. Instead of the conventional elements, they are rich in nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen.

These stones are not your typical urinary stones, and their origin is closely tied to the use of GS-441524 in FIP treatment.

The affected cats in these cases share common traits: they are all under one year old, and they all have a history of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). FIP is a devastating disease that has perplexed veterinarians and cat owners alike, making the recent findings even more intriguing.

The diagnosis and treatment journey for these young cats reveal an essential connection to the urinary stones they developed.

GS-441524: A Closer Look

GS-441524 is an antiviral medication that holds promise in the treatment of FIP. It is this medication that stands at the heart of the urinary stone mystery. Understanding GS-441524 and its role in FIP treatment is crucial.

The medical history of the affected cats paints a clear picture of the link between this medication and the stones they developed.

Stone Analysis

To identify the culprit, stone analysis was conducted, yielding an unexpected revelation. The stones were composed of GS-441524, confirming the connection between this antiviral medication and the urinary stones.

The spectrographic match was an essential piece of evidence, confirming the composition of these atypical stones.

GS-441524 Elimination in Urine

Following GS-441524 administration, the primary elimination pathway for this medication is through the urine. This raises a critical concern, as the limited solubility of GS-441524 in aqueous solutions like water poses the risk of stone formation.

As cat owners, understanding this elimination process is vital to monitor for signs of stone formation.

GS-441524 Solubility Challenges

Following administration, GS 441524 is primarily eliminated in the urine.  Although GS 441524 is very soluble in organic solvents like DMSO (10-59mg/ml), it is sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions like water (0.0004 to 0.1 mg/ml).  Its limited solubility makes GS 441524 a prime candidate to form stones.  Observing urinary signs in cats receiving Remdesivir or GS 441524 is an indication to look for stones.  Seeing atypical crystalluria or uroliths may be an indication to limit medication dose (if possible) and increase water consumption to minimize stone formation.  

Managing Urinary Stones in FIP Cats

Early detection of urinary stone formation in FIP cats is paramount. Key indicators include atypical crystalluria and the presence of uroliths. Vigilance and regular monitoring are essential to identify these warning signs promptly.

Personal Anecdote: I recall a case where a vigilant cat owner noticed unusual litter box behavior in their FIP-diagnosed cat. Upon examination, urinary stones were discovered early, preventing further complications.

For cat owners with FIP-diagnosed cats receiving GS-441524, a proactive approach is vital. This includes considering the adjustment of medication doses if feasible. Additionally, increasing water consumption is a strategic way to minimize the risk of stone formation.

Personal Anecdote: I once worked with a cat owner who diligently adjusted their cat’s medication dose while providing plenty of water. This proactive approach significantly reduced the risk of stone formation.


The emergence of urinary stones in FIP cats treated with GS-441524 underscores the need for heightened vigilance and informed decision-making. While GS-441524 offers promise in FIP treatment, it comes with unique challenges. Cat owners should prioritize early detection of urinary stone formation, regular monitoring, and proactive measures to adjust medication doses and promote hydration.

In this intricate journey of FIP treatment, remember that your cat’s well-being is at the heart of every decision. Be informed, vigilant, and prepared to navigate the complexities of this unique challenge.

For further information and support on FIP, urinary stones, and GS-441524, consider exploring the following resources:

Passhaei Y. Analyical methods for the determination of Remdesivir as a promising antiviral candidate drug for the COVID-19 pandemic. Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics. 2020;14:273-281

Wei D. et al. Potency and pharmacokinetics of GS-441524 derivatives against SARS-CoV-2. Bioorg Med Chem.2021;46:116364

GS-441524 formula: Make GS 441524 injection & pill on your own

Focused on feline disease treatment, we understand the profound desire to explore every possible avenue when it comes to saving our beloved feline companions from the grasp of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). In this article, we will embark on an informative journey, delving into the world of GS-441524, an antiviral compound with promising potential in FIP treatment. We’ll discuss the responsible and ethical aspects of its use, empowering cat owners to make informed decisions about preparing GS-441524 at home.

What is GS-441524?

GS-441524 is a compound that has garnered significant attention in the world of FIP treatment due to its potential antiviral properties. It is closely related to another drug, Remdesivir, which gained prominence during the COVID-19 pandemic. GS-441524 holds promise in addressing the devastating effects of FIP, but its use comes with critical considerations.

To comprehend the power and potential of GS-441524, it’s crucial to explore its molecular structure and mechanism of action. GS-441524 functions as a nucleoside analog, interfering with the replication of the virus responsible for FIP. Accurate dosing and administration are paramount for its efficacy.

GS-441524 injection preparation

Purpose: 100ml GS 441524 injection liquid (15 mg/ml)

Material we need:

1500 mg GS441524

5 mL Ethanol

30 mL Propylene glycol 

45 mL PEG 400

20 mL Saline for injection (pH 1.5 with HCI)


  1. Mix 450 mL PEG 400 and 20 mL Saline.
  2. Dissolve 1500 mg GS441524 in the above solution with stir.
  3. Add 30 mL Propylene glycol and Saline for injection to 100 mL.
  4. Filter through 0.22 um sterile filter membrane.
  5. Divide into several vial if needed and store at 4 ℃.

Though Method seems simple, a lab sterile chamber may be a must to perform the it. If there is no such lab around, 15 mg/mL GS 441524 injection (5 mL) cost around 50-60 USD on Google or facebook.

GS-441524 pill preparation

Purpose: 100 pills GS 441524 tablet (10 mg per pill)

Material we need:

1000 mg GS441524

5g Starch

4.5g Microcrystalline cellulose


  1. Mix 1000 mg GS441524 with 5g Starch and 4.5g Microcrystalline cellulose.
  2. Fill the mixed powder into a tableting machine.
  3. Make the machine work and get the pill.
  4. Store in a cool and try place.

Though Not like injection require sterile environment, Tableting machine is not a common tool for most family. If there is no such tool around, 10mg pill may be found on Google and FB. Price is around 0.8-1.2 USD per mg. It means 10mg GS441524 pill is 8-12USD per pill; 25mg GS441524 pill is 20-30USD per pill; 50mg GS441524 pill is 40-60USD per pill.


The world of FIP treatment is filled with hope, challenges, and complex choices. The option to prepare GS-441524 at home is a testament to the unwavering commitment of cat owners to their feline companions. However, it should be approached with the utmost responsibility, ethics, and consideration for your cat’s well-being.

In your pursuit of alternative treatments, remember that informed decisions are your greatest asset. Prioritize open communication with your veterinarian, stay vigilant about safety and ethical standards, and keep the love and care for your cat at the heart of every choice you make.

person holding a vaccine

How to inject FIP cats GS-441524 injection

GS-441524 isn’t a magical solution, but it’s a potential game-changer in the FIP battle. Administering it through injection ensures direct medication delivery, maximizing its effectiveness.

Before Injection

A. Ensuring Effective Treatment

Administering GS-441524 injections as prescribed is crucial for success. Follow the procedure and dosage schedule diligently. Consistency in both dosage and timing maintains steady medication levels, increasing positive outcomes.

B. Minimizing Stress for Cats

Cats are sensitive beings, and injections can cause anxiety. Creating a calm environment minimizes stress. A serene atmosphere makes the experience smoother for both you and your feline friend

Step-by-Step Guide: How to Inject FIP Cats with GS-441524 Injection

A. Gathering Supplies

Before starting, ensure you have all necessary supplies ready. These include GS-441524 injections, alcohol swabs, a syringe, a needle, a towel, and a treat.

B. Preparing Your Cat

Choose a quiet, comfortable space for the injection. Lay a soft towel on a stable surface, creating a reassuring spot for your cat.

C. Administering the Injection

1. Disinfection: Disinfect your hands and the injection site using an alcohol swab.

2. Gentle Hold: Gently cradle your cat against your body. Secure the loose skin around the injection site with your non-dominant hand.

3. Precise Insertion: Hold the syringe like a pencil and insert the needle at a 45-degree angle.

4. Depressing the Plunger: Press down the syringe plunger gently to administer GS-441524.

5. Final Steps: Withdraw the needle, applying slight pressure to the site with a cotton ball to prevent bleeding.

D. Comforting Your Cat

Offer a treat or gentle praise after the injection to ease discomfort and create a positive association.


Tips for Success

Consistency and Patience

Practice improves confidence, leading to a smoother experience for you and your cat.

Veterinary Support

Regular consultations with your vet are vital. They monitor progress, recommend adjustments, and offer guidance.


Administering GS-441524 injections to FIP cats is a vital step in their recovery journey. Your commitment to your feline friend’s well-being is commendable. Following this guide and staying in touch with your vet ensures you’re taking significant steps toward your cat’s health and vitality.

fip cats GS441524 How to feed FIP cats GS-441524 pills

How to feed FIP cats GS-441524 pills

Discover the art of feeding GS-441524 pills to FIP-afflicted cats with precision and care. Our veterinary guide offers step-by-step instructions, stress-minimizing tips, and expert insights. Ensure your feline companion’s well-being with effective medication administration.

Method 1: Hide the GS-441524 pills in food

Giving GS-441524 pills to FIP cats can be a challenge, even for the most experienced veterinarian! The easiest way to give your cat a pill is to hide the pill in food. This usually works best if the pill is hidden in a small amount of wet cat food, tuna, or a soft treat that can be molded around the pill.


Method 2: Administer the GS-441524 pill directly into FIP cat’s mouth

  1. Lubricate or ‘grease’ the GS-441524 pill with a very small amount of some gravy from canned food or a piece of a soft treat so it does not stick in your FIP cat’s mouth or throat and will be easier to swallow. This is very helpful with the administration of capsules.
  2. Hold the GS-441524 pill between your dominant hand’s thumb and index finger.
  3. Gently grasp your FIP cat’s head from above with your other hand by placing your thumb on one side of the upper jaw and your fingers on the other. Tilt your FIP cat’s head back over her shoulder so that her nose points to the ceiling. Her jaw should drop open slightly. With your pilling hand, use your little finger and ring finger to open your FIP cat’s mouth further by gently putting pressure on the lower lip and front teeth.
  4. Quickly place the pill as far back over the tongue as possible. Try to place it on the back one-third of the tongue to stimulate an automatic swallowing reflex, then close your cat’s mouth and hold it closed while you return her head to a normal position.
  5. Gently rub your cat’s nose or throat or blow lightly on her nose. This should stimulate swallowing. Usually, a cat will lick its nose with its tongue if it has swallowed the pill. In some cases, it may help the cat swallow the pill better if you follow the pill with a bit of tuna juice, flavored broth, or water gently squirted into the mouth with a syringe or offer the tuna juice or flavored broth in a teaspoon or a bowl.
  6. Right after pilling your cat, give her some positive reinforcement (e.g., treat, brushing, petting, or playing). Be sure it is something that your cat enjoys.

Method 3


Tips for Success

A. Consistency and Routine

Cats thrive on routine, so strive to administer medication at the same time each day. This consistency can ease anxiety and make the process more predictable.

B. Positive Reinforcement

Reward your cat with gentle praise and a treat after successful pill administration. Associating the experience with positivity can make subsequent administrations smoother.


Administering GS-441524 pills to FIP-afflicted cats is a labor of love that requires patience and dedication. Your commitment to your cat’s well-being is commendable. By following these steps and maintaining open communication with your veterinarian, you’re taking proactive steps toward helping your beloved feline friend.

FIP Cats Treatment: The Life-Saving Information Your Vet Forgot to Mention

Buy GS-441524 Online: The Top 5 Trusted Sources in 2023

As veterinary professionals specializing in feline diseases, we understand the challenges cat owners face when their beloved pets are diagnosed with Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). One of the promising treatments for FIP is GS-441524, a potent antiviral drug. However, sourcing this medication can be a daunting task, especially given the importance of obtaining it from a trusted source. This article aims to guide you through the process of buying GS-441524 online from the top 5 trusted sources in 2023.

The Top 5 Trusted Sources to Buy GS-441524 Online

1. FIP Doctor

FIP Doctor is a dedicated online platform for FIP treatments. This online pharmacy is a trusted source among many cat owners. They offer GS-441524 at competitive prices and have a straightforward ordering process. Their high rating and positive customer reviews attest to their reliability.

Formulation offered

FIP Doctor offers four types of formulation, including 15 mg/mL injection and 10, 25, and 50 mg pills. 15 mg/mL injection is highly recommended by Dr.Pederson who discovered the GS-441524 to treat the FIP virus. And more, they provide the high GS-441524 strength pill – 50 mg GS-441524 pills. This is really a hope for the high-weight ocular/neuro FIP cats, since the cat needs a high GS-441524 dosage to conquer the FIP virus in its brain.

Customer review

FIP Doctor has quite good item review and shop rating. Over 80% clients rate 5 stars in the review. Before and after photo is quite impressive.


  • Provide injection and pill both
  • High GS-441524 containing pill for ocular/neuro FIP cat
  • Fast shipping (2-5 business days for US customers)


  • Only for the US market, not available in the rest world
  • The injection is with only one 15 mg/mL strength
Check FIP Doctor


BASMI FIP is known for its transparency and reliability. They provide detailed product information and have a team of customer service representatives ready to answer any queries. I’ve had clients who’ve successfully purchased from this source and reported positive experiences.

Formulation offered

Basmi FIP oral capsules are an easy and effective treatment option for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Each oral capsule contains sufficient amount of antiviral GS-441524 to control the replication of FIPV for one day. The capsule contains GS-441524, Zeolite Clinoptilolite and Boswellia. Basmi FIP offers three concentration injection including 15, 20 and 30 mg/mL.

Customer review

BASMI FIP does not provide a review section. But it’s a quite famous brand in Indonesia and Thailand. This is a well-known brand.


  • Well-known brand in Indonesia and Thailand
  • Provide three types of capsules and injections for all FIP cat
  • Fast shipping


  • Only available in South East Asia
  • The price is not low

3. Bliss

Bliss is licensed and adheres to strict quality control measures. They offer competitive prices and have a secure payment system. Their commitment to customer satisfaction is evident in their responsive customer service.

Formulation offered

Bilss offers 10 mg GS-441524 pill and 15 mg/mL injection. 10 pills per bag and 15 vials injection pack make the price quite affordable.

Customer review

Bliss does not provide a review section, though this is a well-known brand.


  • Well-known brand
  • Provide both pill and injection
  • The price is quite affordable


  • Only one pill strength is provided. Need to take 3-6 pills a day for heavy FIP cats or ocular/neuro FIP cats
  • Not available in the US

4. Mutian Xraphconn

Mutian stands out for its comprehensive range of veterinary medications. They have a secure website and offer various payment options. Mutian Xraphconn capsule is the first commercial GS-441524 product and they are famous among FIP cats parents. Their detailed product descriptions ensure you know exactly what you’re purchasing.

Formulation offered

Mutian Xraphconn capsule is the first commercial GS-441524 product and they are famous among FIP cats parents. Mutian provide capsule only and it’s three strength including 50, 100, and 200 mg. It’s highly recommended to treat FIP cats.

Customer review

Mutian does not provide a review section. But this is a well-known brand.


  • High GS-441524 capsule dosage
  • First GS-441524 commercial product
  • Well-known brand


  • The price is quite higher than other brands
  • Injection is not available

5. SAK

SAK is an EU market-targeted brand with reputable product reviews.

Formulation offered

SAK provides 16, 17 & 20 mg/mL injections (5.2 mL) as well as 30 tablets (20mg GS 441524). Target market is EU.

Customer review

SAK does not provide a review section. But this is a well-known brand.


  • Well-known brand.
  • Competitive price
  • Provide three types of injections for all FIP cats, including wet, dry, and ocular/neuro FIP.


Only available in EU countries.

Key Considerations When Buying GS-441524 Online

When purchasing GS-441524 online, it’s essential to consider the following:

– Secure Payment Options: Ensure the website has secure payment options, such as credit card payments through a secure server or PayPal. Look for “httpss://” in the website’s URL, which indicates a secure connection.

– Privacy Policies: Reputable websites should have clear privacy policies that protect your personal information.

– Customer Reviews: Check customer reviews to gauge the experiences of other buyers. This can provide insights into the product quality and customer service of the online pharmacy.

– Legitimate Online Pharmacy: Legitimate online pharmacies should have proper licensing and be transparent about their location and contact information. They should also require a prescription for prescription-only medications.

– Consultation with a Vet: Always consult with your vet before purchasing and administering GS-441524. They can provide personalized advice and ensure GS-441524 is the right treatment option for your cat.


Purchasing GS-441524 online can be a convenient and cost-effective solution, provided you choose a trusted source. The top 5 sources listed in this article have been vetted for their reliability and commitment to customer satisfaction. However, always remember to consult with your vet before making a purchase to ensure the safety and health of your beloved pet.


(Insert references here)

Remember, this article is intended to provide general information about buying GS-441524 online. Always consult with your vet for advice tailored to your cat’s specific situation.

Niels C. Pedersen FIP Cat GS-441524

GS-441524 treatment & dosage

Niels C. Pedersen, Nicole Jacque

September 24, 2021


The initial field testing of GS-441524 for FIP treatment involved subcutaneous injection. This route of administration was based on prior pharmacokinetic (PK) studies done on laboratory cats. Intravenous and subcutaneous routes of injection yielded similar high blood levels that were sustained at virus inhibitory concentrations for over 24 hours. Oral administration was also found to provide blood levels, but somewhat delayed and only at about 40% peak levels of subcutaneous and intravenous routes (Pedersen NC, unpublished data, 2018). However, dogs which have a longer intestinal tract evolved for omnivorous diets, can absorb up to 85% of GS441524 by the oral route [1, 5]. Dogs have often been used as surrogates for humans in oral absorption studies, so oral absorption in humans is also likely to be higher than in cats. Therefore, the subcutaneous route was chosen for field testing in cats based on ease of administration and resulting blood levels.

Current brands of capsules/tablets are sold as supplements and their labels list several common innocuous chemical compounds and medicinal herbs and do not list GS-441524 as one of the ingredients. This is probably done to avoid scrutiny by customs. Regardless of the list of ingredients, the active component in all oral products is GS-441524. The exact concentration of GS-441524 in the various oral products is kept secret by the sellers, but it is obviously several times higher than would be needed if the drug were given by the subcutaneous route.

We were initially critical of the oral route for two reasons. First, oral forms were more wasteful of what was initially a rare and expensive resource. Second, published research on oral absorption of nucleosides (GS-441524 is a nucleoside) document a concentration limit or ceiling for oral absorption [2-5]. This limitation would make it theoretically difficult to achieve the extremely high blood concentrations required to treat certain forms of FIP (e.g., neurological) and/or to overcome the problem of acquired drug resistance. Newer information obtained from field use of the oral forms of GS-441524, indicate that this problem may not be as serious as first believed as most forms of FIP respond equally well whether given pills or injections.

It appears that more and more owners and veterinarians are embracing oral GS-441524 for part or all the treatment. The cost of oral GS-441524 preparations has steadily declined over the last two years and quality increased. The problem of injection site reactions, coupled with more effective oral preparations of GS-441524, have encouraged the oral treatment. Steadily increasing numbers of cats are being treated with oral drug either for part or all of the treatment.

Formulation and Dosing

Suppliers of oral GS-441524 do not list the amount of active drug in their tablets or capsules. Some suppliers also provide pills with a higher concentration of GS-441524 for use in cats with ocular and neurological FIP to limit pills that must be given at one time. In addition, one supplier has tablets labeled for administration every 12 hour (h) and yet another for every 24h. The 1 tablet/kg q12 h tablet contains one half as much GS-441524 as a 1 tablet/kg q24h tablet the rationale being that the q12h dosing would prevent a fall-off in the blood concentration prior to 24h. This belief is inconsistent with the original pharmacokinetic data, which shows blood levels to be sustained at effective levels for at least 24h. Regardless, both the q12h and q24h pills seem equally effective when given according to instructions, although most owners prefer dosing once a day.

FIP Doctor Oral tablet dosage recommendation

Form of FIPDosageKittab 10 q24h
(10mg GS-441524)
Kittab 25 q24h
(25mg GS-441524)
Kittab 50 q24h
(50mg GS-441524)
Wet6 mg/kg0.6 tablet/kg0.25 tablet/kg0.12 tablet/kg
Dry8 mg/kg0.80.30.16
Ocular10 mg/kg10.40.2
Neurological12 mg/kg1.20.50.24


All oral brands have similar instructions for administering capsules or tablets. Fasting for half an hour before and after giving the medication is generally recommended. A small amount of treat may encourage cats to take them, and many cats will consume them when put on a plate with a coating treat.


The price of oral GS has significantly decreased in the last year. Nevertheless, the relative cost of oral GS-441524 is 20-40% higher (depending on the supplier) than their injectable version. Cost calculator may help cat owners to estimate the daily or monthly cost.

Factors affecting oral vs. injection

Cats currently experiencing vomiting/regurgitation and diarrhea are generally considered poor candidates for oral GS-441524. Therefore, cats with serious gastro-intestinal disease are often started on injections, at least until the problems are resolved. Most people, especially in the past, have started with injectable GS-441524. The injection form is cheaper, and the dosage is more accurately managed. Absorption of GS-441524 is also more reliable by the subcutaneous than oral route, which is often a critical factor in the initial treatment of cats that are severely ill and unstable at the onset. Whether or not a cat continues injectable GS-441524 is often conditioned on the ability of the owner to do injections in the most effective manner, the willingness of the cat to adapt to the injection pain, and the occurrence of injection site sores. Oral medication is often a welcome respite for owner and feline patient in such situations.

Comparison of treatment success between injectable and oral GS-441524

Assuming that dosages are accurately calculated, and dosing properly done, the success rate with oral GS-441524 currently mirrors that of injectable formulations. Nevertheless, differences in responses between oral and injectable GS-441524 have been reported. A small number of cats have not responded well to oral GS-441524 as initial treatment or have led to relapses when replacing injections. Alternatively, switching cats to oral GS-441524 at an equivalent dosge has resolved disease that was not responding well to injections. It is difficult to assign these dramatic differences in response to the drug form, as GS-441524 given by subcutaneous or oral routes ends up in the bloodstream and ultimately in the tissues. It is more likely that the brands of injectable or oral GS-441524 used prior to such switching were not good. Indeed, there have been many cases when switching to a different oral or injectable brand immediately improved the response.

It was assumed that only the injectable form of GS-441524 could achieve the extremely high blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels necessary to effectively treat neurological disease, especially in situations where the virus has evolved variable degrees of drug resistance. However, oral brands such as Aura/Lucky have been quite effective on cats with neurological FIP. This has also included some cats who were failing to respond to an extremely high dosage of injectable GS441524. More and more cats with neurological FIP are being cured with entirely oral treatment. This is either due to more experience with oral treatment in difficult cases of FIP, or equally likely, to the increased quality of oral formulations.

Summary of currently available brands of oral GS-441524

Information on oral forms of GS-441524 is sparse regarding treatment outcomes but there are a growing number of brands that are available, attesting to the popularity of this form of treatment. Information on these brands is updated at the FIP Warrior CZ/SK website [7]. This website also contains excellent information on FIP and GS-441524 treatment.

The recommended dosages vary from brand to brand and do not always correspond to the equivalent dosage for injectable GS-441524. GS-441424 is absorbed from the intestine with about 50% efficiency as subcutaneous or intravenous administration. There is also a theoretical upward limit to absorption through the intestine, which would also limit the blood levels that can be obtained. Given the absorption limitations of oral GS-441524, one would expect the oral dosage to be around twice that of injections. However, most oral brands are recommended at an equivalent dosage to injections. This suggests that the actual concentration of GS-441524 in oral preparations may be higher than for injectable GS-441524 as listed in the tables below and as provided by the FIP Warrior CZ/SK website.

Referenced studies on GI absorption of nucleosides related to GS-441524 and GS-441524


1. Thomas L. A precursor to remdesivir shows therapeutic potential for COVID-19.

2. Painter GR, Bowen RA, Bluemling GR, et al. The prophylactic and therapeutic activity of a broadly active ribonucleoside analog in a murine model of intranasal venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2019; 171:104597.  doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.104597

3. Cass, C.E., Young, J.D., Baldwin, S.A., Cabrita, M.A., Graham, K.A., Griffiths, M.,Jennings, L.L., Mackey, J.R., Ng, A.M., Ritzel, M.W., Vickers, M.F., Yao, S.Y., 1999.Nucleoside transporters of mammalian cells. Pharm. Biotechnol. 12313–12352

4. de Miranda, P., Krasny, H.C., Page, D.A., Elion, G.B., 1981. The disposition of acyclovir indifferent species. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 219 (2), 309–315

5. Vijayalakshmi, D., Belt, J.A., 1988. Sodium-dependent nucleoside transport in mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Two transport systems with differing substrate specificities. Biol. Chem. 263 (36), 19419–19423.

6. Yan VC, Khadka S, Arthur K, Ackroyd JJ, Georgiou DK, Muller FL. Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered GS-441524 in Dogs. bioRxiv, doi: httpss://

7. FIP Warriors CZ/SK, httpss://

Shopping Cart